Here we are all back to our everyday work and fight in our different fields after our common share in Göteborg from June 8th to the 12th 2001. Hopefully our enriching discussions and plan of action will not stay voiceless and with no future.
That is why, in the workshop on “fighting discriminations against minorities”, we decided to develop a Newsletter in order to share our knowledge, our problems, our needs with all the partners who are involved in this field.
This Newsletter will be our common link to share information and knowledge about:
– positive experiences in our organisations or our countries about how to fight effectively discriminations against minorities
– Our difficulties, and other appeals to reinforce our fight against discriminations
– the political and legislative developments (bad or good) in our countries in matter of discriminations against minorities
– future projects, like conferences or seminars or exchanges on this subject
So far, 13 people accepted to take part to this Network Newsletter in the next future.
Names: Goran Miletic (Yugoslavia), Nevenka Longurova (Macedonia), Valeria Bopoczky (Hungary), Zanna Karelina (Latvia), Ashot Airapetian (Russia), Alexandra Reith (Germany), Nader Arian (Denmark), Lilian Mikaelsson (Sweden), Tansy Hutchinson (Ireland), Nihad Mesic (Bosnia), Iris Borelli (Italy), Ana Moreno (Belgium) and myself (France).
I proposed myself to be the co-ordinator in the beginning for the collection of your articles, reports, and information (in English preferably) of all kinds that you feel want to share with others.
I really hope that we will all collaborate to this common work to make our cooperation after Göteborg more efficient and closer in order to have future concrete plans, like the organisation of the Conference on youth with ethnic backgrounds we discussed in our workshop.
Rachida Toudert (France)
Grassroots Fighting of Discriminatory Procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Main human rights issue in Bosnia and Herzegovina after the war is the return of the refugees and displaced persons to their places of origin that they left or were expelled from during the war from 1992 to 1995. The returnees to different parts in the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina face many obstacles upon the return. Often their houses are destroyed, or somebody else live in their houses, or even if they are lucky enough that their house is whole and they have returned, it is difficult to establish a normal life without job, infrastructure like electricity and telephone and with silent or not so silent obstruction of the administration, which is often composed of personnel of exclusively one ethnicity. In our work to re-establish Bosnia and Herzegovina as tolerant and multiethnic society, Human Rights Office Tuzla has started with the implementation of the project that has a goal to support the process of the return in Bosnia and Herzegovina and educate the returnees on the significance of the local autonomy and its constitutional position. With this project we shall try to achieve changes by focusing people around concrete issues that have influence on their lives, engaging them to prepare concrete actions taking into consideration the fact that the changes in the society could be achieved by personal engagement.
The project includes two returnee villages, one in the area of BiH Federation (Panjik, Municipality of Lukavac) and the other in the area of the Republic of Srpska (Grapska, Doboj Municipality).
In this project the citizens-returnees will have the possibility to be educated about local self-government and elements of public advocacy, development of practical strategies in order to carry out a public advocacy campaign, identifying the problems and assistance in achieving goals related to the problems in the return process, improving of public services and conditions and infrastructure in the villages that are considerably damaged or destroyed during the war.
Problems are similar in both places of return and it is important to mention that the return of displaced persons and refugees is not followed by the repairs of infrastructure, there are difficulties in education of children returnees (minority ethnicity) since the schools are not re-opened or the curriculum is not suitable for children from minority ethnicity, impossibility of employment for the returnees, limiting laws in the field of social rights including the pension rights. There is also lack of logistical support in reconstruction and the problems of the returnees have in obtaining valid documentation by the authorities are evident.
Our aim is to work in these two returnee villages in the next period in order to increase the participation of the returnees in the general process of democratisation and communal participation in resolving local problems. Thus the returnees would be empowered and encouraged to achieve positive changes and at the same time the connections between the municipal authorities and returnees in both entities would be strengthened.
The work has already started in both places and the results will be analysed in a couple of months. Breaking prejudices of both returnees and the authorities will mean that we have been successful on our work. Only by working together we shall be able to achieve that it is not important any more whether we are Serbs, Croats, Bosniacs or Japanese, that it is important that we are human beings.
Reported by Nihad Mesic, Human Rights Office Tuzla
Introduction to the activities of Roma Organisations for the rights of Roma people
Today in Hungary several hundred young Roma pursue studies at universities, or have acquired a diploma recently. Most of us, however, experience a sense of isolation facing acts of discrimination. Indeed, despite our relatively high number, we hardly know each other. In our view the newly forming Roma intellectuals have a real need to enter and maintain contact with each other.
Therefore we decided to set up a regular meeting forum, a club, where these young people can get to know each other through discussions and entertainment.
The Bronze Club`s objective is to enable the formation of an independent grass root community comprising of young people, who are proud of their origin, where the participants can form lasting, valuable relationships with one another. Except from being an informal exchange place (open to Roma and non-Roma communities), it is also an interesting professional forum. At the moment we are working on establishing a wide database, which contains different available grants (studies, research, stipends, travel, etc.) and labor market information and requirements. Mainly in the areas of: marketing, computer science, media, social policy and education.
The workshops that we are setting up have three basic elements: webpage project, professional workshops, and club evenings. The program is set up to address problems faced by the Roma minority. The problems identified are social policy, education, and small-business management.
Another objective of the Bronze Club is to fight the stereotypes concerning Roma. The Club would like to build a communication bridge between the Roma communities and the majority society by its information skill and its positive image. Thats`s why we began to launch the folklore workshop all over the country, which will visit the educational institutes all over the country, and hold lectures and initiate discussions on Roma culture, history and traditions.
For Roma youngsters, we also organize summer camps. The goal of the camp was to give Roma students opportunities to become immersed in their culture, traditions as well as to get in touch with other young Roma.
Another interesting project we are dealing with is the Training of the Roma political leaders. From july 2000, the Bronze Club was charged with the responsibility of arranging training for Roma political leaders. The goal is to get the Roma youth acquainted with social and political life. The premise of this program is to give the participants the theoretical and practical background needed to apply for a job in the offices that they had chosen earlier. This training fosters the relationship between the participants, the political parties, and NGOs in their countries. This will allow the Roma’s representation can be increased in civil society and in the electoral lists of the political parties.
Reported by Valeria Bodoczky
For a more detailed presentation of the Bronze Club contact the UNITED office
or click to www.bronzklub.hu
The Romani CRISS has just obtained the legality of the sanitary mediator occupation
Romani CRISS Roma Center for Social Intervention and Studies, one of the Romanian NGO’s that fights for Roma rights, has been notified that the Ministry of Work and Social Solidarity approved the introduction of the sanitary mediator occupation in the Romanian Occupations Code.
The new occupation has been approved based on the Government Strategy of improving the situation of the Roma people living in Romania and has the Ministry of Health support.
The decision of the Minister of Work and Social Solidarity is an answer to the Romani CRISS repeated interventions, since February 2000.
Presently, in Romania there are 30 socio-sanitary mediators, formed by Romani CRISS, who mediate the Roma population to the access to medical services and makes easier the relations of Roma people with the local authorities.
Reported by Valeria Bodoczky
The Contact Point of Roma Associations with the Media, Buzesti Street 19, Bucharest, Romania, phone +004-01-2314144, fax +004-01-2125605, firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction of the European Roma Rights Center
The Roma (Gypsies) remain to date the most deprived ethnic group of Europe. Almost everywhere, their fundamental rights are threatened. Disturbing cases of racist violence targeting Roma have occured in recent years. Discrimination against Roma in employment, education, health care, administrative and other services is common in many societies. Hate speech against Roma deepens the negative stereotypes which pervade European public opinion.
The European Roma Rights Center (ERRC) is an international public interest law organisation which monitors the human rights situation of Roma and provides legal defence in cases of human rights abuse. The ERRC is governed by an international board of directors. It is is a cooperating member of the International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights and has consultative status with the Council of Europe.
The Roma Participation Program (RPP) works to help Roma help themselves in the struggle for greater integration into the societies of the countries in which they live. It aims to empower them to take part in the democratic process and to fight for an open society in which they are equal partners.
The RPP supports local Roma activists and offers a variety of programs to help them establish and administer their own projects and institutions. It offers not only training but funding to Roma NGOs which take interest in public policy advocacy. Funds are mostly for institutional costs and are meant to be seed grants for NGOs that previously had no office space. For applications or more information, please contact the RPP office in Budapest.
The Roma Civil Rights’ Foundation was established by Roma and non-Roma individuals (mainly intellectuals) in 1995. The objective of the Foundation is to promote the political, legal, social, economic, cultural and educational emancipation of the Roma in Hungary and to assist their self-organization process.
The main activities of the Foundation both in its centre- and regional offices are to provide legal assistance, social welfare services and counselling. Since 1995 the Roma Civil Rights’ Foundation has regarded it as one of its main tasks to create a network of legal defence offices that aims at the contribution to the emancipation of the Roma in Hungary, by giving legal advice and providing legal representation free of charge and also by taking a resolute stand against all forms of discrimination affecting the Roma.
The cultural programs of the Roma Civil Rights’ Foundation aim at the preservation of cultural values of the Roma in Hungary and at the promotion of their social integration. In the field of education, the Foundation concentrates on the elimination of disadvantages that Roma pupils have to cope with and on the material and non-material support of Roma students. Our Romaversitas program as a model-initiative supplementing higher education aims at providing intellectual and financial support for college and university students of Roma origin. The objective of the Free University run also by the Foundation is to teach vocational skills by experts and specialists in various fields.
The Roma Cafe Program, a series of public and cultural events, functions as an intellectual workshop where the participants guided by the concept of open society can have an active public and social life.
With the intention of tradition-creating, we have commemorated the memorable days of the Hungarian Gypsies for years now. On 21 March, the World Day of Fighting against Racial Discrimination is an occasion to organise round-tables and discussions on Roma people. As well as the 2nd August, the International Mourning Day of the Roma Holocaust.
Reported by Valeria Bodoczky
For a more detailed presentation of the European Roma Rights Center contact the UNITED office
A victory for gay and lesbian communities
On the 10th july 2001, one of the democratically elected mayors of Budapest has forbidden gay organisations to take part in a famous young people music and cultural festival, often referred as the Hungarian Woodstock.
Initiated by Mr Istvan Tarlos, and supported by other Parliament and Police representatives of Budapest, the official statement stressed that “in protection of the youth and also the safety of those thinking differently, there will be no informative or other type of program with the theme of homosexuality, under any name, on the Student Island” (Pepsi Island). Mr Tarlos added that he regretted that he could not ban simply all homosexuals from visiting the festival!
Mr Tarlos, as well as his supporters have violated not only the Hungarian Constitution, but also international agreements that the country signed to prohibit sexual discrimination.
Various Organisations of defense of gay and lesbian as well as human rights in Hungary stood against such violation. Those Organisations sent letters of protest first to the sponsors of the festival (mainly Pepsi, but also Durex, Siemens, the British Council, Hungarian ministers, the city Hall of Budapest). They stressed the illegal agreement that was taken against the lesbigay community in preparation of this festival, and called for the economic power to pressure the organisers not to accept such an agreement.
Hopefully, we have won! The organiser of Pepsi Island cancelled the discriminatory agreement. After a press conference at 10 a.m. on 13th july where eight gay and lesbian organisations and three further signatories called all sponsors and artists to boycot the Island, the organisers gave in.
Thanks to the support and solidarity of many NGOs and individuals, the fight was not vain. This shows that e-mail writing campaigns are an effective means of pressure to encourage the respect of the rights of minorities.
The national television also reported this event. It namely showed Mr Tarlos completely confused on the issue of this affair. Then, other political leaders also gave their opinions on TV, which showed two main trends. The two important parties of the Government (very right side) agreed with the mayor of the 3rd district and supported him. While the opposition party, “the free democrats”, which includes the mayor of Budapest (the head of all “small” mayors) agreed with the organisers of the festival. The mayor of Budapest was glad to see that the civil organisations were so brave and did not give up; he himself stands for freedom and tolerance.
Reported by Anna Faika El-Nagashi (LesbiGay student group at the university of Vienna)
You can also consult a Recommendation of the Parliamentary Assembly on “the situation of lesbian and gays in the States members of the Council of Europe”, Recommendation 1474(2000) http://stars.coe.fr
Polish FA President declares war on anti-racist Organisation
The Extraordinary Congress of the International Football Federation (FIFA) held in Buenos Aires on 6-7 July called upon national football associations to join the struggle against racism and to work with non-governemental organisations. The president of the Polish FA returned from the Congress and started fighting: not against racism but against an anti-racist organisation.
FIFA had invited members of independent anti-racist groups working together under the aegis of Football Against Racism in Europe (FARE) to share their experiences of campaigning against xenophobia in sports. Among others, Jolanta Skubiszewska, a representative of the Polish ‘Never Again’ Association, described the situation in Poland.
Anti-Semitic slogans and neo-fascist symbols at stadiums as well as occurences of racial abuse against Black players were noted. Ms Skubiszewska described anti-racist campaigns initiated by Polish football fans and supported by “Never Again”. She said she hoped the Polish sports authorities would increase their efforts to combat racism.
The Polish NGO presentation was well received by the audience but it met with a furious reaction of the Polish FA delegation who denied the problem of racism ever existed in Polish football. “How dare you say such things about Poland abroad” – said one member of the delegation to the representative of “Never Again”.
On his return to Poland, Michal Listkiewicz, the president of the Polish FA called a press conference and subsequently gave a number of interviews to the biggest radio stations and the tabloid press (eg. The 0.5m circulation “Superexpres”) in which he referred to the participation of “Never Again” in the FIFA Congress as a “scandal”. Listkiewicz said the NGO presentation was “embarassing” and “nobody took it seriously”. He called Ms Skubiszewska “a silly girl”.
He further explained “her only motivation was to show she spoke good English”.
According to Listkiewicz the representative of “Never Again” had stated “Poland is a racist and anti-Semitic country” and “half of the Poles are anti-Semites and the other half are racists”. In fact no such phrases appeared in the speech. Speaking about racist attacks Listkiewicz dismissed them as “not worth any attention”. Listkiewicz repeatedly stated that “nobody has ever heard of any organisation under the name Never Again”.
The “Never Again” Association has been active since the early 1990s and it has been featured in numerous tv and radio programmes and press articles. Since 1994 the “Never Again” magazine has been published as a source of information on racism and the extreme right. The activities of “Never Again” have been valued highly by, among others, Simon Wiesenthal.
The anti-racist sport campaign run by “Never Again” is supported by fan groups, sport journalists, and players. “Never Again” is a founding-member of Football Against Racism in Europe and it has been involved in the Ad Hoc Working Group on Racism in Sport of the Council of Europe.
“It is a pity Mr Listkiewicz is spending his time and energy on fighting our organisation. I believe he’d better spend his time fighting racism in football” – said Marcin Kornak, the chairman of the “Never Again” Association.
If you would like to express your disapproval of the slander campaign of the Polish FA and solidarity with the “Never Again” Association you can write to:
Mr Michal Listkiewicz email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org, fax +48-22-8270704 with a copy to the “Never Again” Association: email@example.com
Reported by Rune Lagune
The full text of the presentation made at the FIFA Congress is available form the “Never Again” Association: www.nigdywiecej1.px.pl
Other web sites of interest: www.farenet.org, www.fifa.com
Articles with expression of unhidden xenophobia in Russian Press
The Center for Interethnic Co-operation organized an opinion poll among leaders of ethnic organizations of Russia late in 2000. Being asked a question about who is mostly to blame for the growing intolerance towards representatives of other ethnics of Russia, most people interviewed answered that those are the Mass Media.
Unfortunately, Russian Mass Media catch up and multiply several times assertions made by fascist organizations and declarations of a number of xenophobic oriented authority representatives, thus creating intolerance towards non-Russians.
The aspect that provides this is traditional neglecting of xenophobic moods by the Russian Society and lack of legislative mechanisms that would call to responsibility the authors of publications that directly arise ethnic intolerance. For instance a newspaper “New Petersburg” (#3, 2001) published an article “Bullet for Russian Soldier” saying that “it is possible that a shashlyk (kebob) or a lavash (Caucasian bread) will turn into a bullet that is aimed at a Russian soldier from an ambush in a mountain gorge”. The author of the article asserts, “Caucasian clans in Petersburg” are squeezing out ethnic Russians from different spheres of business and nourish extremists groups. The same newspaper (#11, 2001) in its article “Blockaded Leningrad was sieged by Jews” they assert that Jews and religious Jews fought with fascists.
In another Petersburg newspaper “Slaviansky Vestnik” (#5 2000) the article “Oh, these peaceful Chechens” tells the readers about Chechens and Ingoushs who allegedly were in co-operation with German fascist occupants during the occupation of the Chechen-Ingoush republic.
All those publications have become a motive for a meeting of the Great Jury of the Union of Journalists of Russia. As a result the Big Jury came up with the following decision: the publications are only based on assertions and syllogisms, no proof is given and unacceptable conclusions are used to create an image of the enemy and dishonoring citizens on the ethnic basis.
But unfortunately, the only result of the decision made by the Big Jury was another series of publications in the newspaper “New Petersburg” and in a Moscow newspaper “Zavtra” (“Tomorrow”).
This time the pages of the newspapers were full of not only insults towards ethnic minorities but also towards the Big Jury. For instance, the Big Jury was called “Jewish assembly”, alleging that they had been paid for the decision “by Caucasian and Jewish Diasporas”. It is noteworthy that Nikolay Bondarik, a journalist from the newspaper, declared himself to be an anti-Semitist “just like any decent Russian”. Thus there will be plenty things to discuss at the UNITED Conference “East-West: International solidarity and co-operation against intolerance” that will take place in St Petersburg (Russia) in October 2001.
Prepared by Ashot Airapetian, The Center for International Co-operation, Moscow
CODAC, how to fight actively all kinds of discriminations
In 1999, a whole campaign against racial discriminations in the different fields of the French society was run by various NGO’s and supported by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Of course discriminatory acts have been punished according to the Criminal Code since 1981. But the whole procedure and the law itself are not efficient enough.
So the Ministry of Internal Affairs has decided in a letter to its regional administrations (18th january 1999) to create the CODAC (Departmental Commissions for the access to citizenship). The mission of the CODAC is to fight any kind of discriminations from which young people with different ethnic backgrounds are victims in the access to employment, lodging and entertainment (discos, pubs,…).
Concretly, the CODAC has initiated a whole anti-
discrimination campaign. Each CODAC secretariat (115 in total) has initiated a hotline that the victims of discrimination could call and testify of what happened to them. All the testimonies are then collected and reported to the Minister of Internal Affairs as well as the Public Prosecutor. Out of 401 tesimonies communicated to the CODAC secretariats after one year of existence, 353 were considered cases of real discrimination. And 9 cases were sued to Court, out of which 7 were condemned.
CODAC is also a forum of discussions, debates to find possible solutions to the problems of discriminations.
Those who attend those meetings are representatives of the State, public institutions (Employment office, social security, social lodgings,…), Trade institutions (Trade Unions, firms…) and local and national NGOs.
This forum has led for instance to the writing of a Charter of good conduct signed by the representatives of discos and local youngsters Organisations to prohibit racial discrimination to the access to discos.
Indeed, most of young people from ethnic minorties suffer from discrimination mainly in the access to employment as well as entertainment facilities.
The consequences of such illegal discriminatory behaviour are grave for the social cohesion because an important part of the population feels rejected and excluded. This feeling leads often to youth violence and anger (urban violence, isolation within an ethnic community, …).
The evaluation after a year and half of existence of the CODAC is relative. In a way it is a success, seeing the high rate of participation to the Commissions fora. Though 7 condemnations are very little out of thousands of discriminatory acts that happen everyday. It is important that this institution gets more weight on a legal level to keep the population from any temptation of breaking the law.
Prepared by Rachida Toudert (France)
Immigration: our country’s situation
The last adjournments have shown that the campaign against immigrated people is increasing in Italy, on behalf of the right wing (Lega), after the shocking events in New York.
In occasion of the last meeting of the Lega party in Venice, a leaflet of “Padania” with the photo of Osama Bin Laden writing : “Clandestines = islamic terrorists” has been spread.
In the meantime the new law design is ready. The Ministers Council has driven back the possibility of an act on indemnity for the immigrated domestics. Regarding the new rules against the irregular immigration and the expulsions, here are the following statements: the irregular immigrated people will be expelled after maximum 60 days in the temporary receptions centers (with the risk of imprisonment if they come again).
The residence permit will be granted only with a regular contract of job, and the “sponsor” is no longer allowed.
Yesterday, in Crotone (Calabria), about 1.000 other kurdish and Afghans refugees disembarked…
We have had to face in the last years unexpected massive migrations of thousands of men and women from Somalia, ex-Yugoslavia and Albania putting us in a state of emergency that has showed how unprepared our legislation is.
The aim is therefore to overcome the emergency, plan public structures, and keep in mind both the necessity of limiting the entrance of aliens as well as think of methods of integration and co-existence with the Italian citizens. In other words the attention is towards creating a balance between the entrances and the control.
Law n. 40 of March 6th 1998 (Immigration and Aliens Rules) is a focal point in the analysis of the immigration problem in our country.
The strength in this new legislation stands in the prevention of the “entries and residencies” of aliens, and a firm attitude towards extradition for the “irregular” entries. All this is done with full respect of human rights (work equality, health care, social integration etc.).
The law 40/98 is complete and organic. We needed that. The previous norms adopted have always presented inconsistency and difficulty in integration.
Moreover, Law 40/1998 must be seen through the international regulations overrulling Italy in matters that concern the aliens’ entries and residence (Schengen Treaty).
The communitarian action finds its main strength in the regulation of norms to allow immigration to be up dated with human rights criteria. National laws in future could be overtaken by European norms and action as required by the country members.
Then, most probably the important element in this new law is that the various competences of the government bureaus are more rationally divided.
The previous law 39 (Feb 28th 1990), called Martelli Law, showed many limitations in terms of rights of immigrants and share of powers between the Government institutions and other local authorities.
The new law however contains a series of rules and indications orienting the local stuctures and bureaus and involving associations which deal with assistance and integration of the immigrants and the National workers Unions. The coordinator of such immigration policy being the Prime Minister.
However, to go along with the Schengen Treaty (elimination of controls at the borders), the law 40/98 has amplified controls compared to Martelli Law. One can enter the territory only with a valid passport or equivalent traveling document and a visa delivered by the diplomatic authorities.
An alien can then ask for a permanent visa. With it, he/she will have the right to undertake any activity.
For the aliens who don’t follow the necessary rules, the law 40/98 has also listed a series of extradiction reasons (related to irregular entry or stay; or for public security reasons; or as a substitute to prison).
Still, this new law is slightly different from the previous ones in how it overrules the extradictions. For instance, this law is harder in repressing criminal acts of illegal networks that drive immigrants, rather than the aliens themselves.
At last, about the right of asylum, it is worth mentioning that it is still ruled by Martelli’s law, even though it has been regulated by law 40/98, mostly for what concerns health care and the right of appeal.
Prepared by Iris Borelli (FIDH Lega italiana, www.fidh-legaitaliana.it)
For the full text presenting the Law 40/98 contact the UNITED office
For a social inclusion strategy
“Social inclusion and fighting discrimination are the two sides of the same coin”.
Indeed, the problem in fighting discrimination emerges because of the phenomenas of social exclusion. The globalisation phenomenon has activated the exclusion of many groups of people. This fragmented the population in “integrated” and “excluded”. Then this fragmentation has led to the margination of the excluded and the reduction of the political social protection.
Then this margination concept in the social and economic context means not to have access to certain conditions of life (goods, services,…). In other words, to what is considered in our societies the minimum to live. But the parameters of such threshold vary according to social and cultural values. And those values give the priority today to the achievement of well being and the quality of life based on the access to material and immaterial goods.
Discrimination spreads out in society mainly because of the tendency to push aside those whose conditions are not enough to remain on the competition ground. Then this reality of the excluded groups tends to form new social and cultural agregations and risks then to initiate micro conflicts.
So, the fight against discrimination at the European level is based on the fulfilment of the EU aims of economic and social cohesion (and inclusion).
The basis for such active strategies is “the participation sensitivity”, or the participation of all institutional actors of the civil society in the transformation process of the current cultural and social systems.
This process can reconduct us to a reflection on our own values to find new ones, taking also into consideration that non Western countries have different cultures and values (more based on the community than the individual).
Therefore, if we think also on those aspects, social inclusion can be lived as an evolution opportunity for all (not only for the excluded) for a more comprehensive and understanding behaviour. Evolution requires a progressive integration of this change.
Prepared by Iris Borelli
For the full text contact the UNITED office
February 1, 2002 February 14, 2002:
OSCE Basic Course “Project Management” (deadline Oct.1)
February 1 Febr. 14, 2002
OSCE Basic Course (deadline Nov.15 2001)
February 15, 2002 February 28, 2002
OSCE Specialization “Course Human Rights and Rule of Law” (deadline Nov. 15, 2001)
May 31, 2002 June 13, 2002
OSCE Basic (Core) Course (deadline April 15, 2002)
June 14, 2002 June 27, 2002
OSCE Specialization Course “democratization and Political Affairs”
(deadline April 15 2002)
August 30, 2002 September 12, 2002
OSCE Basic (Core) Course (deadline June 15, 2002)
September 13, 2002 September 26, 2002
OSCE Specialization Course “Conflict Transformation” (deadline June 15, 2002)
If you are interested, please contact:
AUSTRIAN STUDY CENTER FOR PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION (ASPR),
A-7461 Stadtschlaining/Burg, Austria, phone +43-3355-2498,
fax +43-3355-2662, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.aspr.ac.at
For further information about what is happening in Macedonia, Lilian advises you to visit the website www.realitymacedonia.org.mk
Petition for a Peaceful U.S. Response
You can sign the Petition at http://home.uchicago.edu/~dhpicker/petition which appeals to world leaders to be level-headed and, wherever possible, peaceful in their response to the recent attack against the United States.
Appeal to American Governmental and Non-Governmental Organisations
In 1996 we warned the Russian Government about the inexpedience of using force in solving the problem of the Chechen Republic.
And now we want to warn our American friends against using quick military actions against the countries that give shelter to terrorist organizations of the Islamic Doctrine. Of course, we know that what the terrorists have done in New York and Washington is monstrous. We condemn these terrorist acts and we mourn the innocent victims.
However we can hardly believe that the terrorists had not assumed that their actions would arise righteous wrath of the USA Government. Maybe on the contrary they had aimed at provoking the USA to send their rockets to the cities of some Arab countries.
Professor Samuel Huntington form the Center of Strategic Studies of the Harvard University has already forecasted in his works the global confrontation of the Western and the Moslem civilizations. Bombardments of the Arab countries could provoke the beginning of this confrontation.
Countries like Afghanistan and Syria are very poor and a human life does have neither price nor sense there. It is common knowledge that the poor do not like the rich. Many poor Arabs dislike the rich and wealthy Americans merely because they are rich. Many Arabs dislike Ben Laden just as many Chechens did not like Jokhar Dudaev. However the first victims of the American bombardments will make radical Islamites become heroes, who will very promptly find new finance and new kamikazes. Only Arabs themselves can successfully fight with Arabs. The USA has allies among Arab countries and Arab organizations.
From our point of view considerable increase of financial, informational and other support to these countries and organizations, the realization of global programs for liquidation of poverty and illiteracy in the Third World countries is the only effective way to fight Arab terrorism.